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The problem facing a service provider who does not directly deliver a service to the customer, is how to analyse the service quality gap. A solution for this problem was to use the SERVQUAL scale and identify the areas where expected customer service level is not achieved in each of the five dimensions Gagliano and Hathcote, During the late eighties and very early nineties the SERVQUAL scale was advantageous to managers of organisations as it was easy to use, as well as being the first qualitative method to measure service quality.
The scale has also been tested by McKay in Canadian municipal parks, and he was able to extract the same five dimensions as Parasuraman et al , confirming the reliability of the scale. They found that it is still a valid and reliable model with which to evaluate service quality provided by travel agencies Brady and Robertson, The SERVQUAL scale focuses on the fifth service quality gap, which is the discrepancy between customer expectations and their perceptions of the service delivered; when customer expectations are greater than perceptions.
Parasuraman et al believed that by using their performance minus expectations theory, they would be able to analyse and close this gap. Managers and employees would know what the customer requirements were and therefore they could establish a plan to close the gap.
Once the plan of action had been in place for a certain amount of time they would conduct the study again to see if they were any closer to closing the service quality gap Parasuraman et al This was a good plan as it allows an organisation to see how far away they are from closing the service quality gap. If the research is conducted again and the results are more positive then the organisation knows they are heading in the right direction.
However, if the results are negative then the organisation knows that the plan they have implemented needs to be altered. Chellaudri et al were one of the first researchers to evaluate service quality in fitness centres as they developed The Scale of Attributes of Fitness Services SAFS. Parassuraman et al criticised the SAFS scale by suggesting that it had a lack of structure, and it was confusing as to what in particular was being measured.
Also, the wordings of the dimensions were not clear, which in turn questions the scales validity and reliability. If the wording is not clear to the customers then the investigator may think he is measuring one thing when in fact the customer has interpreted the question in another way.
Parasuraman et al suggested the new and improved SERVQUAL scale was the way forward as it was the superior scale to use when measuring service quality across numerous industries. Carman admitted that the SERVQUAL model has good stability; however the five dimensions stated are not always generic, as the dimensions will alter depending on the organisation being surveyed.
Even when the expectations are taken before a service has been delivered there is still no relationship between one another.
Although the use of the performance minus expectations gap score is naturally appealing and theoretically sensible, the ability of these scores to provide extra information beyond that which is present in the perception component of service quality scale is under doubt Carmon, They also found that the distribution of SERVQUAL scores was not normal, and the scale also failed to achieve discriminant validity from its components.
They recommended that the scale can serve as a template for other researchers to use in their investigation of recreational service quality.
They found that 28 of the 30 items scored negatively, therefore the perceptions did not meet the customer expectations. Although they state the scale may be useful, it will still cause the fitness centre problems as customer expectations always seem to be higher than their perception.
Consumers always want the best; therefore the managers of fitness centres will have difficulty in improving these scores and providing the perfect service for each customer.
The service quality as well as service value played a vital role in instituting customer loyalty [ 17 ]. The researcher Shanka [ 18 ] substantiated the theory of literatures with respect to the link between dimensions of service quality and satisfaction of customers. The dimensions such as sympathy, tangibility, trustworthiness, receptiveness and assurance are essential for the satisfaction of customers towards the services provided by the private banking sector in Bangladesh [ 19 ].
Empathy and tangible dimensions demonstrates the highest positive correlation and least positive correlation respectively towards customer satisfaction [ 22 ]. The customers of Islamic banks U. K and Pakistan considered assurance dimension as an important factor for customer satisfaction followed by reliability and empathy. On the other hand, the customers of Islamic Banks UAE considered assurance and tangible as important [ 23 ].
The factors such as quality of banking services, customer satisfaction, and the quality of bank relationship with customers have a significant effect on customer loyalty [ 24 ].
All five factors were positively related to consumer satisfaction. However reliability had only a partial support, which indicates the need to improve reliability to be more competitive in the market [ 25 ].
The tangible dimension of service quality has a direct and significant impact on internal marketing and satisfaction of customers followed by trustworthiness, receptiveness, assurance and sympathy dimension [ 27 ]. Except tangibility, all other dimensions of the service quality had a positive significant effect on satisfaction of customers [ 28 ]. When compared to other dimensions tangibility was the least predictive of observed service quality [ 29 ].
Constructs relating to perceived quality, reliability, empathy and assurance the strongest sign of customer satisfaction [ 30 ]. Businessmen and low income groups satisfied more with the service quality of the bank, whereas middle income and higher income group not much satisfied with the services provided by the Bank [ 32 ].
Customers have highest and lowest satisfaction with regard to responsiveness dimension and reliability dimension respectively [ 4 ]. Customers of retail banking sector in Vietnam are satisfied with reliability dimensions, followed by empathy, tangible, assurance and responsiveness [ 33 ]. The dimensions with regard to reliability and responsiveness need to be concentrated by Ghana Commercial Bank [ 34 ]. The dimensions developed by Parasuraman have a constructive and higher impact on the satisfaction of customers [ 35 ].
The important factors influencing the satisfaction of customers — speedy transactions with accuracy, expertise of employees, maintain secrecy and waiting time of customers to complete the transaction. The responsiveness constructs influenced the customer service quality more [ 36 ]. The customers of the bank dissatisfied with regard to upgrading physical facilities and personal attention [ 37 ]. The bank could not fulfill the expectation of customers with regard to the three dimensions namely innovation, benefits and credits and reputation of the bank.
However, customers satisfied relating to other nine attributes [ 38 ]. Bank safety and guarantees considered to be the important variables which influenced the satisfaction of customers [ 39 ]. Direct association with the service quality, satisfaction of customers and corporate image has been reviewed [ 40 ]. As a mediator, customer satisfaction affects the various dimension of service quality and as a moderator affects only the empathy and reliability dimensions on customer satisfaction [ 41 ].
The literature review prepared for this study on service quality and satisfaction of customers in all banks both public and private situated in India reflects the findings of various professionals based on their studies. In order to retain the valued customer, it required to enhance the customer satisfaction [ 42 ]. The study explained the concept of customer satisfaction, beginning from basic principles.
Assurance services in Government Banks better when compared to Private Banks. However the level of customer satisfaction in private banks is more than government banks [ 43 ]. The nationalised bank have to improve employee behaviour, ambience infrastructure, whereas the private and nationalised banks have to concentrate in the areas such as lower charges, more accessibility and good communication [ 44 ].
The perception of customers towards the service of private banking sector is good when compared to the customers of public sector bank [ 45 ]. Constructs such as reliability, responsiveness, fulfillment, privacy and security have a significant association towards the customer satisfaction in internet banking [ 47 ]. Out of the five dimensions, responsiveness found to be significant in predicting overall satisfaction with regard to banking service [ 42 ].
The customers satisfied with the quality of staff dimension, whereas, maintaining accounts and handling of enquires dimensions did not meet their expectations [ 48 ]. Empathy dimension of the service quality showed the highest significant relationship with customer satisfaction followed by assurance dimension [ 49 ].
Among the five dimensions the bank has to concentrate on reliability dimension [ 50 ]. A positive correlation with customer satisfaction was displayed by all the five dimensions of the service quality [ 51 ].
Banks should concentrate on the following dimensions to satisfy the customers: Service quality and customer satisfaction provided a useful tool for the banking services across the world. The findings of this study have a wide array of potential implications for rural and urban customers, bankers, government and academicians. The findings also have profound implications for customers for investing their money in foreign banks, public and private sector banks.
The findings of the study also extend directions to bank managers to extent their fullest service to all customers irrespective of age, community, geography and customer needs to be integrated with unsystematic factors. There are three significant implications for academic practitioners, bank managers and researchers — that it would be valuable to re-examine the findings of this review using a larger sample over an extended period.
The presence of service quality and customer satisfaction in banks may vary in other banking services contexts including technology service, mobile banking service, E-banking and digital divide service and so forth. Over and above, the examination of service quality and satisfaction of customers towards banking services provided by all banks across different phases of banking financial services and financial inclusion is a pivotal area of research.
Extensive review of the literature suggests that service quality and customer satisfaction in banks can be investigated further to find out what method that banks follow over sample period for different service quality and customer satisfaction.
Though there have been a number of studies that have found the presence of service quality and customer satisfaction inconsistency and attributed different reasons for service quality and customer satisfaction of foreign and public banks however no study have been able to resolve this issue. Hence, it can be an existing idea to address the issue of service quality and customer satisfaction of public and private banks situated in foreign countries anomaly through analysing the public and private sector banks situated in India.
Despite sincere efforts, the study has certain inherent limitations. The study is descriptive in nature and data was collected from many sources such as academic journals, magazines, websites and annual reports. There is, therefore, dire need to empirically validate the relationships between quality service and satisfaction of customers in various contexts.
The presence and extent of service quality and customer satisfaction examination in different countries has been pursued by the researcher. Previous studies reveal that the service quality and satisfaction of customers are studied jointly and not separately. Service quality and satisfaction of customers towards foreign and nationalised banks can be studied separately in future studies.
There is woeful shortage of potential explanation of service quality in foreign banks.
Service quality becomes the crucial issue for hospitality industry and the theory of service quality has evolved over long period of time through testing and trials in service sector.. The.
Service quality literature is predominantly concerned with the customer's perspective; there is a scarcity in the amount of research concerning the staff's perspective: 'â€¦there is something of a paucity of published research on the support staff's perspective' (Reynoso, and Moores , p).
Essays - largest database of quality sample essays and research papers on Literature Review On Service Quality. Key words: Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction, Consumer behavior INTRODUCTION A LITERATURE REVIEW OF SERVICE QUALITY AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Akram Jashireh Department of Management and Accounting, College of Humanities, Islamic Azad university of Hamedan Branch,Hamedan, Iran.
Literature review – Measuring service quality – SERVQUAL and SERVPERF The purpose of this review is to consider both current and past literature concerning the main concept areas associated with the study in question and also to provide some rationale for conducting the study. Article Writing & Research Writing Projects for £20 - £ I need a words essay on a literature review on customer services especially regarding service quality and using SERVQUAL as a method.